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The Indo-European character of Tocharian was announced by the German scholars Bedřich Hrozný published the first report of his own decipherment of the much more copious material that had meanwhile been found in the ruins of the Hittite capital itself.The first full comparative grammar of the major Indo-European languages was Bopp’s (1861–62; “Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European Languages”) were rendered obsolete by the major breakthrough of the 1870s, when scholars—prompted largely by the discoveries of a group of German scholars known as Neogrammarians—realized that sound correspondences are not merely rules of thumb that do not have to be strictly observed, but that apparent exceptions to sound laws can often be accounted for by stating them more accurately or by reconstructing additional different sounds in the parent language.The chief reason for grouping the Indo-European languages together is that they share a number of items of basic vocabulary, including grammatical affixes, whose shapes in the different languages can be related to one another by statable phonetic rules.Especially important are the shared patterns of alternation of sounds.

But in the 5th century Baltic-speaking area, however, contracted, and by the end of the 20th century Baltic languages were confined to Lithuania and Latvia.The sound changes implied by these correspondences have become known as Heinrich Hübschmann, showed that Armenian was an independent branch of Indo-European, rather than a member of the Iranian subbranch.Since then the Indo-European family has been enlarged by the discovery of Tocharian languages and of Hittite and the other Anatolian languages and by the recognition, with the aid of Hittite, that Lycian, known and partly deciphered already in the 19th century, belongs to the Anatolian branch of Indo-European.One group of travel permits for caravans can be dated to the early 7th century, and it appears that other texts date from the same or from neighbouring centuries.These languages became known to scholars only in the first decade of the 20th century.

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Indo-Hittite is used by scholars who believe that Hittite and the other Anatolian languages are not just one branch of Indo-European but rather a branch coordinate with all the rest put together; thus, Indo-Hittite has been used for a family consisting of Indo-European proper plus Anatolian.

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